Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol are their areas of application. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguished between Annex 1 and Annex 1 countries, this ramification is unclear in the Paris Agreement, with all parties being obliged to submit emission reduction plans. [34] While the Paris Agreement still insists on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and obligations in the fight against climate change – it does not provide for a specific separation between developed and developing countries. [34] It therefore seems that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, even if the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic. [35] The treaty establishes different competences for three categories of signatory states. These categories are industrialized countries, industrialized countries with special financial responsibility and developing countries. [6] Developed countries, also known as Annex 1 countries, were initially composed of 38 countries, 13 of which were in transition to democracy and a market economy, and the European Union. All are part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Annex 1 countries are invited to adopt national policies and take appropriate measures to mitigate climate change by limiting their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to report on measures taken to return individually or collectively to 1990 emissions.

[6] Developed countries with specific financial responsibilities are also designated as Annex II countries. They cover all Annex I countries, with the exception of those in transition to democracy and a market economy. .